Surgical Specializations: Exploring Subfields in Surgery

Surgical Specializations: Exploring Subfields in Surgery

MedicusUnion Team
MedicusUnion Team

November 24, 2023

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Explore the diverse world of surgical specialties with MedicusUnion! From General Surgery to Bariatric and Cardiac Surgery, learn about the expertise that transforms lives.

In the world of surgical specialties, there are different areas of expertise, with some being more broad in scope than others. These specialties require different training and qualifications to perform specific surgeries. What's crucial to understand is that surgeons within these specialties often perform similar procedures repeatedly.

Key to having the most successful outcome is ensuring that you find the right doctor to perform your surgery, and understanding that their experience can be invaluable.

In this article, we will explore various surgical specializations, shedding light on the diverse areas where surgeons make a difference in the lives of patients.

Types of Surgical Specialties

There are more than a dozen main surgical specialties, but many more subspecialties that fall under them. Depending on your case, you may need a doctor with more than one of these specialties, or a surgical team comprised of individuals with certain specialties working together.

General Surgery

A general surgeon is a specialist who is trained to manage a broad spectrum of surgical conditions affecting almost any area of the body. The surgeon establishes the diagnosis and provides the preoperative, operative, and post-operative care to patients and is often responsible for the comprehensive management of the trauma victim and the critically ill patient. General surgeons are experts in a wide range of surgical procedures, including appendectomies, hernia repairs, and gallbladder removals. They serve as the backbone of surgical care, ensuring that patients receive treatment for various common ailments. 

Thoracic Surgery

Thoracic surgery involves the surgical treatment of chest-related conditions, including heart issues, lung and esophageal cancers, congenital anomalies, and chest injuries. This expertise requires a deep understanding of cardiorespiratory physiology, oncology, and proficiency in various diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, including extracorporeal circulation, cardiac assist devices, pleural drainage, and respiratory support systems.

Pediatric Surgery

Pediatric surgeons specialize in diagnosing and surgically treating children's medical issues from infancy through adolescence. They collaborate with neonatologists, pediatricians, and other specialists to determine if surgery is necessary. Their focus is on addressing surgical conditions affecting children to ensure a good quality of life.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Surgery

Obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) are physicians trained to provide medical and surgical care for pregnant patients, deliver babies, and treat conditions affecting the female reproductive system. Some specialize in areas like urogynecology, pelviscopy, adolescent/pediatric gynecology, or infectious diseases. They also focus on women's health maintenance and preventative care, making them valuable consultants for other medical practitioners.

Cardiac Surgery

Cardiac surgery specializes in treating heart issues through surgical procedures. Pediatric cardiac surgeons address congenital heart problems in newborns and infants, while adult cardiac surgery often involves repairing or replacing heart valves and treating coronary artery disease, commonly associated with aging.


This is the specialty of treating the central nervous system - the brain and spinal cord - with surgery. This type of surgery may include brain surgery, surgery to correct back pain, treatment of cancer in the nervous system, or other neurological conditions.


Urology combines medical and surgical treatments for urinary tract issues, from overactive bladder symptoms to kidney stone procedures. Urologists also perform major surgeries like prostate removal for cancer treatment.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

This involves the specialty of improving appearance for cosmetic reasons or correcting defects or damage for a more personally desirable appearance or better function. This specialty can be practiced on pediatric patients, performing correction for issues such as a cleft palate, or on adults, such as providing rhinoplasty (a "nose job") or breast augmentation.

Orthopedic Surgery

Orthopedic surgeons deal with musculoskeletal issues. They diagnose and treat conditions like broken bones, joint problems, and spinal disorders. Many patients seek orthopedic surgeons to improve their quality of life by addressing mobility and pain issues.


Oncology encompasses surgical specialties that treat cancers across the body. Some other specialists, like otolaryngologists and orthopedic surgeons, can also address cancer related to their expertise, despite not specializing in oncology.

Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric surgeons are those who specialize in the treatment of obesity with surgery. They perform weight loss surgeries like gastric bypass and gastric sleeve procedures. Bariatric surgery can lead to life-altering changes, helping patients achieve healthier, more active lives.


Ophthalmology is the specialty of treating eye conditions with surgery. These conditions may be present from birth, related to an accident or trauma, or develop with age.


Surgery is a dynamic field with numerous subfields, each catering to specific medical conditions and patient needs. At MedicusUnion, we understand the importance of providing information and access to these specialized areas of healthcare. By exploring surgical specializations, patients can better understand the options available to them and make informed decisions about their care. 

We are committed to offering video consultation services that connect patients with expert surgeons in various specializations, ensuring they receive the highest quality of care and support in their healthcare journey.

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